Qantas airlines has a science of interest when talking about air fares charged to consumers.
Someone may be sitting next to a person who paid three times more or less than them, all because of the airline industry. Basically, the fares are divided into sections and are purchased with different restrictions.
Generally, the fewer the restrictions, the higher the price. Business class travellers are willing to pay more to enjoy the freedom, whereas an average traveller does not need or want this freedom and luxury.
In industry systems, fares rise and drop. This may be a frustration to travellers and may potentially reduce consumers and travellers.